Your Need For Minerals – Calcium and Mineral Supplement

You Really Are Mineral Deficient! Don’t believe us – you will be shocked by what major studies reveal.

Calcium and Mineral Supplement

Virtually every individual in America is suffering from a lack of several essential minerals! Please review this “tip of the iceberg” sampling of clinical research including studies from the FDA and USDA we have compiled here. We are sure you will agree it is necessary to supplement your food with calcium, magnesium and trace minerals.

Magnesium

Research done throughout the world shows that the RDA for Magnesium is not sufficient to compensate for the amount lost inbowel movementsand sweat.1-4Aggravating matters more, minor physical ormental exertion, competition or other stresses, all increase magnesium requirements.

The shocking part isamounts actually consumed in American diets is even less than the RDA! Sub-optimal amounts of Magnesium are consumed in the United States,5-10 Europe, and Asia. The amounts consumed are generally far less than the amount shown to be required to maintain equilibrium in metabolic balance studies.6,11-13

Calcium

There is considerable debate whether US RDA levels of Calcium are adequate. Perhaps, RDA levels of Calciumis a moot point given that most Americans are not reaching RDA level from their food!

Research conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study9-15 indicates that several age/sex groups consume less than 80% of the RDA of Calcium. The Centers for Disease Control, in a survey of mineral intakes, also reported “the highest prevalences of inadequate dietary intakes was for calcium”.16 Other independent studies corroborate the lack of Calcium in many Americans diets and the need for calcium dietary supplement.7-17

Trace Minerals

Through the Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study, the levels of 11 elements were determined to be sub-optimal.9-15 Numerous other studies confirm that trace mineral shortages exist in several groups and circumstances.4-18-19

Is there any wonder we don’t feel as energetic and vibrant as we should? Calcium, Magnesium and Trace Minerals are involved in every cell and system in your body.

References

1. Seelig, MS: Consequences of magnesium deficiency enhancement of stress reactions; preventative and therapeutic applications. J Am Coll Nutr 13:429446, 1994
2. Classen HG, Porta S, Schinler R: Coping with acute stress reaction by plentiful oral magnesium supply. Magnes Bul 17:1-8, 1995
3. Cernak I, Savic V, Kotur J, Prokic V, Kuljic B, Grbovic, D Veljovic M: Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress. Magnes Res 13:29-36, 200
4. Seelig, MS: Magnesium in the Pathogenesis of Disease: Early Roots of Cardiovascular, Skeletal and Renal Abnormalities. Publ: Plenem Press, NY 1980
5. Pao EM, Mickle SJ: Problem nutrients in the United States. Food Technol 35:58-69, 1981
6. Lakshamanan FL, Rao RB, Kim WW, Kelsay JL: Magnesium intakes, balances and blood levels of adults consuming self-selecting diets. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1380-1389, 1984
7. Morgan KJ, Stampley GL, Zabik ME, Fischer DR: Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the US Population. Am J Clin Nutr 4;195-206, 1985
8. Lichton U: Dietary intake levels and requirements of Mg and Ca for different segments of the US population. Magnesium 8:117-123, 1989
9. Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB: Nutritional elements in tUS diets: results from the Total Diet Study, 1982 to 1986. J Am Diet Assoc 89;659-64m 1993
10. Halfrisch J, Muller CD: Does diet provide adequate amounts of calcium, iron, magnesium and the suggested treatment. Magnesium in Health and Disease, J. Libbey, London, 1989, pp 111-117.
11. Seelig MS: The requirement of magnesium by the normal adult. Am J Clin Nutr 14:342-390,1964
12. Seelig MS: Magnesium requirements in human nutrition. Magnes Bul 3 (1a): 26-47, 1981
13. Hathaway ML: Magnesium in human nutrition. Home Economics Report #19, Agric Res Serv, USDA, Washington DC, 1962.
14. D. Rudman, A. A. Abbasi, K. Isaacson and E. Karpiuk. Observations on the nutrient intakes of eating-dependent nursing home residents: underutilization of micronutrient supplements. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol 14, Issue 6 604-613
15. Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB, Johnson RD, Vanderveen JE. Mineral content of foods and total diets: the Selected Minerals in Foods Survey, 1982 to 1984. J Am Diet Assoc. 1986 Jul;86(7):876-91.
16. Ervin RB, Kennedy-Stephenson J. Mineral intakes of elderly adult supplement and non-supplement users in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3422-7.
17. Suitor CW, Gleason PM. Using Dietary Reference Intake-based methods to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Apr;102(4):530-6
18. L. B. Kramer, D. Osis, J. Coffey and H. Spencer. Mineral and trace element content of vegetarian diets. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol 3, Issue 1 3-11
19. A Singh, BL Smoak, KY Patterson, LG LeMay, C Veillon and PA Deuster. Biochemical indices of selected trace minerals in men: effect of stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 53, 126-131.

 

Abstracts

1. Consequences of magnesium deficiency on the enhancement of stress reactions; preventive and therapeutic implications (a review)

M. S. Seelig Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Stress intensifies release of catecholamines and corticosteroids that increase survival of normal animals when their lives are threatened. When magnesium (Mg) deficiency exists, stress paradoxically increases risk of cardiovascular damage including hypertension, cerebrovascular and coronary constriction and occlusion, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). In affluent societies, severe dietary Mg deficiency is uncommon, but dietary imbalances such as high intakes of fat and/or calcium (Ca) can intensify Mg inadequacy, especially under conditions of stress. Adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis can intensify its deficiency by complexing Mg with liberated fatty acids (FA), A low Mg/Ca ratio increases release of catecholamines, which lowers tissue (i.e. myocardial) Mg levels. It also favors excess release or formation of factors (derived both from FA metabolism and the endothelium), that are vasoconstrictive and platelet aggregating; a high Ca/Mg ratio also directly favors blood coagulation, which is also favored by excess fat and its mobilization during adrenergic lipolysis. Auto-oxidation of catecholamines yields free radicals, which explains the enhancement of the protective effect of Mg by anti-oxidant nutrients against cardiac damage caused by beta-catecholamines. Thus, stress, whether physical (i.e. exertion, heat, cold, trauma–accidental or surgical, burns), or emotional (i.e. pain, anxiety, excitement or depression) and dyspnea as in asthma increases need for Mg. Genetic differences in Mg utilization may account for differences in vulnerability to Mg deficiency and differences in body responses to stress.

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2. The impact of diets with different magnesium contents on magnesium and calcium in serum and tissues of the rat.

Zimmermann P, Weiss U, Classen HG, Wendt B, Epple A, Zollner H, Temmel W, Weger M, Porta S.

Institute of General and Experimental Pathology, University of Graz, Austria.

Life Sci. 2000 Jul 14;67(8):949-58.

The impact of three different magnesium diets (70, 1,000 and 9,000 ppm) on total, ionized and bound magnesium as well as ionized calcium in serum and total calcium and magnesium in femoral bone, skeletal muscle, heart and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. The percentage of ionized serum magnesium was unproportionally high in rats fed a low magnesium (70 ppm) diet. Femoral magnesium was correlated with ionized and total serum magnesium. In contrast, there was generally no correlation between total serum magnesium and the magnesium fractions in skeletal muscle, heart and liver. In rats fed the magnesium deficient diet, total cardiac concentration of magnesium was even significantly increased along with total calcium content, while there were no effects on total muscle and liver magnesium. Within the single groups, ionized serum calcium was never proportional to dietary magnesium, but in all three magnesium diet groups together, it was inversely correlated with dietary magnesium. Moreover, ionized serum calcium was inversely correlated with both ionized and total serum magnesium. In all 3 groups together, the concentrations of total calcium and magnesium in heart and skeletal muscle were correlated, within the single groups correlation existed only in the 1000 ppm group. Magnesium influx via calcium channels during low magnesium intake has been seen in non cardiac tissues [35,36], but nothing similar is known about non selective channels for divalent cations in the heart [33]. Thus, magnesium uptake by cardiac cells along with calcium seems to be possible, especially at low intracellular magnesium concentrations, but is still poorly investigated. We suggest that the calcium-antagonistic effect of magnesium is related to the turnover rate of magnesium rather than to its tissue concentrations.

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PMID: 10946854


3. Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress.

Cernak I, Savic V, Kotur J, Prokic V, Kuljic B, Grbovic D, Veljovic M.

Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Ibolja.Cernak@jcu.edu.au.

Magnes Res. 2000 Mar;13(1):29-36.

Magnesium and oxidative status were investigated in young volunteers exposed to chronic stress (political intolerance, awareness of potential military attacks, permanent stand-by duty and reduced holidays more than 10 years) or subchronic stress consisting of everyday mortal danger in military actions lasting more than 3 months. Significant decreases in plasma ionized Mg2+, total Mg and ionized Ca2+ concentrations were found in both groups. Similarly, both study groups exhibited oxidative stress as assessed by increased plasma superoxide anions and malondialdehyde and modified antioxidant defense. There were no significant differences between the two stress groups. A negative correlation between magnesium balance and oxidative stress was observed suggesting that the same etiological factor (chronic stress) initiate decreases in both free and total magnesium concentrations and simultaneously increase oxidative stress intensity. These findings support the need for magnesium supplementation with antioxidant vitamins for people living in conditions of chronic stress.

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PMID: 10761188


4. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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5. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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6. Magnesium intakes, balances, and blood levels of adults consuming self-selected diets.

Lakshmanan FL, Rao RB, Kim WW, Kelsay JL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Dec;40(6 Suppl):1380-9.

Magnesium balances and plasma and blood cell concentrations were determined in 34 men and women, 20 to 53 yr of age, during each season for 1 yr while they were consuming their customary diets. Dietary records were maintained 365 days. Analysis of variance indicated no seasonal variation in intake or balance. Blood cell magnesium correlated with magnesium intake (r2 = 0.203; p less than 0.04). Daily magnesium intakes of the men (323 mg) were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than of the women (234 mg), and reflected greater calorie consumption for their greater body weights. Daily magnesium balances for the men and women were -32 and -25 mg, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that magnesium balance was associated not only with magnesium intake but also with the intake of other nutrients such as fiber, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Moreover, the effect of these nutrients on magnesium balance varied with age and sex.

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PMID: 6507359


7. Magnesium and Calcium dietary intakes of the U.S. population.

Morgan KJ, Stampley GL, Zabik ME, Fischer DR.

J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4(2):195-206.

Dietary intake levels of calcium and magnesium, as well as calcium/magnesium ratios, were assessed for 12 age/sex groups of the U.S. population through use of USDA’s 1977-78 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Results indicated that a majority of the U.S. population consumed less than recommended amounts (NRC-RDA) of both calcium and magnesium. Approximately 60% of 0 to 5 year olds and 40% of 6 to 11 year olds had average daily calcium intakes of less than 800 mg, while 60 and 85% of the male and female adolescents, respectively, had intakes below the recommended level of 1,200 mg/day. Approximately 80 to 85% of the adult female groups and 50 to 65% of the adult male groups had average intakes below recommended levels. With the exception of children ages 0 to 5 years, the average daily magnesium intakes of all age/sex classes were below the NRC-RDA. Magnesium consumption was particularly low among adolescent females, adult females, and elderly men, with 85, 80-85 and 75%, respectively, of the population groups having average magnesium intakes below their respective NRC-RDA. Furthermore, the majority of the population groups did not consume appropriate proportions of these two minerals to obtain optimal calcium/magnesium ratios. While adolescent females and adult females had more appropriate ratio values than other segments of the population, these ratios principally resulted from their very low intakes of calcium. The most inappropriate calcium/magnesium ratios, observed for children, male adolescents, and young adult males, were, in general, due to their more appropriate calcium intakes and their low magnesium intakes.

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PMID: 4019942


8. Dietary intake levels and requirements of Mg and Ca for different segments of the U.S. population.

Lichton IJ.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Magnesium. 1989;8(3-4):117-23.

Human dietary requirements for essential mineral nutrients are not precisely known. Estimates differ according to the method used. For magnesium, balance studies yield values from 300 to 354 mg/day for American women and from 420 to 483 mg/day for men. Lower figures are obtained from measurements of urinary and sweat losses. Little is known about requirements for children. Actual intakes in the United States are about 202 mg/day for children from 1 to 5 years old, 228 mg/day for women, and 331 mg/day for men (19-50 years old). Intakes are lower in blacks. Calcium requirements for adults have been estimated as the amount of dietary calcium required to ensure absorption of 150 mg/day. This amount is about 540 mg/day. A similar figure is assumed for children. Intakes are 870 mg/day for children, 683 mg/day for women, and 948 mg/day for men. Again, intakes are lower in blacks. Dietary requirements are used as the basis for recommended dietary intakes, but the latter are generally set higher to ensure adequate intakes. Selected 1980 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council are for magnesium (mg/day): children 1-3 years 150; 4-6 years 200; 7-10 years 350; men 19-50 years 350; women of any age 300. Selected RDAs for calcium (mg/day) are: children 1-10 years 800; men and women 15-18 years 1,200; 19-50 years 800. An extra 150 mg of magnesium and 400 mg of calcium are recommended daily in the diets of pregnant or lactating women.

Publication Types:
• Review
• Review, Tutorial

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PMID: 2682039


9. Nutritional elements in U.S. diets: results from the Total Diet Study, 1982 to 1986.

Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. 20204.

J Am Diet Assoc. 1989 May;89(5):659-64.

Through the Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study, the levels of 11 nutritional elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iodine) in the diets of eight age-sex groups were determined for the 4 years between 1982 and 1986. The 234 Total Diet Study foods, which are representative of the U.S. food supply, were purchased, prepared for consumption, and analyzed for the elements four times each year. The results were combined with national food consumption data to estimate intakes for 6- to 11-month-old infants, 2-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old boys and girls, 25- to 30-year-old men and women, and 60- to 65-year-old men and women. Six elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese) were low (less than 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance or below the low end of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake range) for three or more of the age-sex groups. Six elements were of concern for teenage girls and adult women, five for older women, three for 2-year-old children, two for teenage boys and older men, and only one for infants and adult men. Sodium levels (which did not include discretionary salt) were elevated for 2-year-old children and teenage boys, and iodine was elevated for all age-sex groups. A significant trend was noted only for iodine, the intake of which decreased during the 4-year period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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PMID: 2723289


10. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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11. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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12. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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13. Sorry, no abstracts available currently.

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14. Observations on the nutrient intakes of eating-dependent nursing home residents: underutilization of micronutrient supplements.

D. Rudman, A. A. Abbasi, K. Isaacson and E. Karpiuk.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol 14, Issue 6 604-613.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the intakes of essential nutrients by eating-dependent nursing home residents (EDR). METHODS: This study was done in a 190 bed VA nursing home. Thirty-four EDR were selected for the study. Clinical data base which included age, sex, primary diagnosis, body mass index, albumin, hematocrit, activities of daily living status, decubitus ulcer medications and use of multivitamin/trace mineral supplement were recorded from the medical records. Caloric and essential nutrient intakes were determined over a 3-day period by a registered dietitian. RESULTS: Seventy percent (24/34) residents in the study group were underweight (body mass index < 23 kg/m2), 26% were hypoalbuminemic (serum level < 3.5 g/dl), 50% were anemic (hematocrit < 37%); and 38% had pressure ulcers. In 88% EDR, the dietary intakes of three or more essential nutrients were below 50% of the RDA. Most frequent and severely deficient were zinc, copper, and vitamin B6. Despite the inadequate essential micronutrient intakes in the majority of EDR, only 35% received a multivitamin supplement and only 3% received a trace mineral supplement. A survey of 30 other VA nursing homes indicated generally similar findings to those in the Milwaukee facility with regard to the high frequency for eating-dependence, and the low frequency for administration of multivitamin and trace mineral supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Despite eating supervision and assistance, the majority of EDR have inadequate intakes of numerous essential macro- and micronutrients. The deficient micronutrient intakes could be normalized by administration of a multivitamin/trace mineral supplement daily. Nevertheless, only a minority of EDR in VA nursing homes currently receive such a supplement.

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15. Mineral content of foods and total diets: the Selected Minerals in Foods Survey, 1982 to 1984.

Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB, Johnson RD, Vanderveen JE.

J Am Diet Assoc. 1986 Jul;86(7):876-91.

The 234 foods of the FDA’s Total Diet Study were collected four times per year form mid-1982 to mid-1984 and analyzed for 11 essential minerals. Daily intakes of the minerals were estimated for eight age-sex groups of the U.S. population. Levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were low (less than 80% of the RDA or below the low end of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake range) for some or all age-sex groups. Those most at risk of low intakes were young children, teenage girls, adult women, and older women. Non-discretionary sodium intake exceeded the upper Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake range for two age-sex groups, and iodine was considerably above the RDA for all age-sex groups. Levels of potassium, phosphorus, and selenium were adequate for all groups.

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PMID: 3722652


16. Mineral intakes of elderly adult supplement and non-supplement users in the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

Ervin RB, Kennedy-Stephenson J.

Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA. bervin@cdc.gov

J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3422-7.

Calcium, iron and zinc are important in many of the body’s functions. We report dietary and combined (diet + supplements) intakes for these minerals for elderly supplement and non-supplement users in the United States and the prevalence of inadequate intakes. We calculated usual dietary intakes for adults 60 y and older from third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-94; mineral intakes from supplements and calcium-containing antacids were added to usual dietary intakes. We evaluated iron and zinc intakes using the dietary reference intakes, recommended dietary allowances and estimated average requirements for elderly adults, as well as calcium intakes using the Adequate Intake and the Healthy People 2010 objective. The highest prevalences of inadequate dietary intakes was for calcium (males, 70-75%; females, 87%) and zinc (males, 35-41%; females, 36-45%). Dietary supplements improved intakes, but nearly two-thirds of elderly adults had combined intakes below the calcium objective. Non-Hispanic blacks usually had lower intakes than non-Hispanic whites and higher prevalences of intakes below the standards. Supplement users had significantly higher mean dietary intakes than non-supplement users for all three minerals for total females and non-Hispanic white females (P < 0.05 for each mineral). Many elderly adults had inadequate dietary zinc intakes, and calcium intakes fell below the Healthy People 2010 objective; dietary supplements improved intakes. Even with supplements most older adults still had intakes below the calcium objective, partly because the supplements they took usually contained low doses of calcium. Total female and non-Hispanic white female supplement users were the only groups that had higher dietary intakes than non-supplement users for all three minerals.

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PMID: 3722652


17. Using Dietary Reference Intake-based methods to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among school-aged children.

Suitor CW, Gleason PM.

Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, NJ, USA.

J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Apr;102(4):530-6.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual intakes of nutrients by school-aged children. DESIGN: A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Each subject provided two 24-hour recalls. We adjusted for day-to-day variation in nutrient intake and estimated the percentage of children with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) using the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation Program. SUBJECTS: A national sample of noninstitutionalized children aged 6 to 18 years (N=2,692). STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Chi2 tests showed that background characteristics or percentages with intakes below the EAR were the same across the 6 gender-age and racial/ethnic groups. The SUDAAN statistical package was used to account for the complex sample design. RESULTS: Usual intakes were more favorable for 5 B vitamins and iron than for the other nutrients examined. High percentages of children had intakes below the EAR for vitamin E. Many children aged 9 years and older had intakes below the EAR for folate and magnesium. Females aged 9 years and older had low calcium intakes relative to the Adequate Intake value. Females aged 14 to 18 years were at highest risk of usual intakes that did not meet the EARs. Few males in this age group met the EAR for vitamin E or magnesium. APPLICATIONS: Females aged 14 to 18, in particular, should be targeted for efforts to improve nutrient intakes. Studies should monitor children’s usual nutrient intakes after adjusting for day-to-day variation.

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PMID: 11985410


18. Mineral and trace element content of vegetarian diets.

L. B. Kramer, D. Osis, J. Coffey and H. Spencer.

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol 3, Issue 1 3-11.

Lacto-ovo, lacto, and vegan vegetarian diets were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, and nitrogen at four calorie intake levels ranging from 1,700 to 2,800 kcal/day. Diets containing dairy products had a high calcium and phosphorus content, ranging from 1,279 to 1,755 mg calcium and 1,378 to 2,160 mg phosphorus for the four calorie levels, respectively, and vegan diets contained less calcium, ranging from 612 to 810 mg. The magnesium content of all three types of vegetarian diets was adequate or high, ranging from 366 to 560 mg/day. The zinc content was lower than that of the RDA (15 mg/day), and was particularly low at the 1,700 calorie intake levels of all diets. The iron content of these diets varied widely and ranged from 12.7 to 22.7 mg. This study has shown that vegetarian diets planned and presented at the higher calorie intake levels contain adequate amounts of minerals and trace elements, whereas this is not the case at the 1,700 calorie intake level. This observation is of importance as the mineral and trace element content of relatively low calorie vegetarian diets would not supply sufficient amounts of these nutrients. In addition, the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements from these diets remains to be determined.

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19. Biochemical indices of selected trace minerals in men: effect of stress.

A Singh, BL Smoak, KY Patterson, LG LeMay, C Veillon and PA Deuster

Department of Military Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 53, 126-131,

Plasma zinc, iron, copper, and selenium and selected blood proteins were measured in 66 men before (BHW) and after (AHW) a 5-d period of sustained physical and psychological stress called Hell Week. Recovery blood samples were obtained from 26 men 7 d after Hell Week. Dietary intakes were determined BHW and during Hell Week; zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intakes during Hell Week averaged 23.6 +/- 3.4 mg/d, 35.4 +/- 3.9 mg/d, 3.0 +/- 0.5 mg/d, and 92.5 +/- 26.7 micrograms/d, respectively. C-reactive protein was detected in only five subjects BHW and in all subjects AHW. Zinc, iron, selenium, and albumin decreased by 33%, 44%, 12%, and 9%, respectively, whereas ferritin, ceruloplasmin, and creatine kinase concentrations increased AHW by 59%, 8%, and 266%, respectively. Haptoglobin concentrations increased 57% in 30 subjects but decreased 32% in 23 subjects AHW. The biochemical changes were transitory because protein (except ferritin) and mineral concentrations were similar to BHW values 7 d after Hell Week. Hell Week induced changes characteristic of an acute-phase response in physically active men.

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